One of the most highly regarded Velazquez paintings, Pope Innocent X is the signature work in the Galleria Doria Pamphilj, a private art collection of 650 works by famous painters including Caravaggio, Titian, Raphael and Velazquez. This comparatively little known museum is a jewel.

Diego Velazquez.  Portrait of Innocent X, 1650.  Oil on canvas, 4' 8" by 3' 11".  Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome.

Diego Velazquez.  Portrait of Innocent X, 1650.  Oil on canvas, 4′ 8″ by 3′ 11″.  Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome.

Giovanni Battista Pamphilj (pronounced Pom-fee-lee) became a cardinal in 1629 and was elected to the throne in 1644 as Pope Innocent X.  Giacinto Gigli (1594-1671), an Italian who wrote about Baroque Rome, described the Pope: